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A Nutritional Approach to Alzheimer's DiseaseA Nutritional Approach to Alzheimer's Disease

Dr. Steve Blake, ScD

 

 

February, 2016

"It was good meeting you today and I very much appreciated your informative discussion of nutritional approaches to prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias."
BRENT P. FORESTER, MD Instructor in Psychiatry, Harvard. Director Mood Disorders Division, Geriatric Psychiatry Research Program and Site Director, McLean Hospital,
Harvard Medical School.

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      Please see below for the table of contents and the scientific references.

      Read a two-page article on nutrition and Alzheimer's disease

      Contents
      Introduction ........................................................................... 3
      Chapter 1: An overview of Alzheimer’s disease .................... 9
      Drugs and Alzheimer’s disease .......................................... 9
      Changes to the brain in Alzheimer’s disease ................... 11
      What are amyloid plaques............................................... 13
      Meet tau tangles ............................................................. 14
      An epidemic of Alzheimer’s disease ................................ 16
      A broad approach to reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease........ 19
      Four steps to avoid Alzheimer’s disease ......................... 24
      Supplementary nutrients ................................................. 26
      Chapter 2: Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and SAMe . 26
      How amyloid plaques are made ...................................... 27
      How two B-vitamins reduce the formation of amyloid plaques..... 29
      Folate and vitamin B12 transform excess homocysteine into
      SAMe. ..................................................................................... 31
      Homocysteine and Alzheimer’s disease .......................... 33
      Are we getting enough Folate and Vitamin B12? ............ 35
      Are we getting enough vitamin B12 ................................ 37
      SAMe and Alzheimer’s disease ........................................ 40
      Chapter 3: Advanced Glycation Endproducts ...................... 43
      Absorption of AGEs.......................................................... 44
      Formation of AGEs ........................................................... 45
      AGEs as a cause of the brain damage in Alzheimer’s disease...... 49
      Cooking methods to reduce AGEs in food ....................... 50
      Chapter 4: Antioxidants and Alzheimer’s disease ............... 52
      Vitamins E and C protect brain cell membranes from free radical
      attack ..................................................................................... 53
      Causes of excess free radicals ......................................... 54
      Radiation and medical testing as sources of free radicals...... 55
      Plant Antioxidants Defend Us from Free Radicals ........... 56
      Vitamin E and Alzheimer’s disease .................................. 57
      Why synthetic vitamin E is ineffective......................... 58
      Food sources of vitamin E ........................................... 62
      Vitamin C and Alzheimer’s disease .................................. 64
      Dietary sources of antioxidants ....................................... 66
      Plant antioxidants ............................................................ 69
      Antioxidants made in your body ..................................... 73
      Protecting our little energy factories, the mitochondria75
      Coenzyme Q10, the only fat-soluble antioxidant made in the
      body ................................................................................... 76
      Antioxidants in diets ........................................................ 78
      Chapter 5: Saturated fat and cholesterol ............................ 80
      Blood cholesterol and risk of Alzheimer’s disease .......... 82
      Chapter 6: Medical plants to treat Alzheimer’s disease...... 84
      Ginkgo biloba ................................................................... 84
      Gotu kola ......................................................................... 86
      Saffron ............................................................................. 88
      Chapter 7: Exercise and Alzheimer’s disease ...................... 90
      Chapter 8: DHA from algae or from fish oil ......................... 92
      Chapter 9: Environmental toxins and Alzheimer’s disease . 94
      Aluminum, does it cause Alzheimer’s disease? ............... 94
      Chapter 10: Nutritional approaches to Alzheimer’s disease .. 97
      Reference citations ............................................................ 100

      Reference citations

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      2 Mechanisms by which Dietary Fatty Acids Modulate Plasma Lipids,
      Fernandez and West, J. Nutr. 135:2075-2078, September 2005.
      3 Folate, vitamin B12, and serum total homocysteine levels in confirmed
      Alzheimer Disease, Clarke, et al. Archives of Neurology, November 1998, volume 55.
      4 Homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B-12 on mild cognitive impairment,
      Alzheimer Disease, and vascular dementia, Quadri, et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 80, No. 1, 114-122, July 2004.
      5 Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer
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      6 Protein Phosphatase 2A Methyltransferase Links Homocysteine
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      8 Protein Phosphatase 2A Methyltransferase Links Homocysteine
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      9 S -Adenosylmethionine Is Decreased in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of
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      10 S-Adenosyl methionine (SAMe) versus celecoxib for the treatment of
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      11 Does Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products Contribute to
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      14 Advanced Glycosylation End Products and Nutrition—A Possible
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      17 Amplifiers of Systemic Inflammation– The Role Advanced Glycation and
      Lipoxidation End Products in Foods, Stig Bengmark, Kuwait Medical Journal 2008, 40 (1): 3-17.
      18 Age- and Stage-dependent Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End
      Products in Intracellular Deposits in Normal and Alzheimer’s Disease Brains,
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      19 Advanced Glycosylation End Products and Nutrition—A Possible
      Relation with Diabetic Atherosclerosis and How to Prevent It, Xanthis, Vol. 72, Nr. 8, 2007, Journal of Food Science.
      20 Gofman, J. W. and E. O’Conner. X-Rays: Health Effects of Common
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      21 A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment
      for Alzheimer’s disease, Sano et al. April 24, 1997, JAMA Volume 336 Number 17.
      22 Molecular bases of the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease with
      antioxidants: prevention of oxidative stress, Jose Vina, et al. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 25 (2004) 117–123.
      23 Dietary Intake of Antioxidant Nutrients and the Risk of Incident
      Alzheimer Disease in a Biracial Community Study, Morris et Al. JAMA, June 26, 2002—Vol 287, No. 24.
      24 High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer’s disease
      risk in advanced age, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, volume 20, #4 2010.
      25 Vitamins and Minerals Demystified, Blake, McGraw-Hill, 2008.
      26 Relation of the tocopherol forms to incident Alzheimer disease and to
      cognitive change, Morris et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:508 –14.
      27 Vitamin E Forms in Alzheimer's Disease: A Review of Controversial and
      Clinical Experiences, Usoro and Mousaa, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition Volume 50, Issue 5, 2010, Pages 414 – 419.
      28 Lowered plasma vitamin C, but not vitamin E, concentrations in
      dementia patients. Charlton et al. The Journal of Nutrition Health & aging,
      2004, vol. 8, no2, pp. 99-107.
      29 Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of incident Alzheimer’s
      disease, Morris et al. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders: September
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      30 Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function
      and dementia in elderly men. Masaki et al. Neurology 2000;54:1265-1272.
      31 Dietary Intake of Antioxidants and Risk of Alzheimer Disease, Engelhart
      et al. JAMA. 2002;287:3223-3229.
      32 The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages,
      spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide, Carlsen et al. Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:3.
      33 Grape juice, berries, and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior,
      Joseph et al. Journal of Nutrition 139: 1813S-1817S 2009.
      34 Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in
      older adults with mild cognitive impairment, Krikorian et al. British Journal of Nutrition (2010), 103, 730–734.
      35 Nutritional status of selenium in Alzheimer's disease patients, Cardoso
      et al. British Journal of Nutrition (2010), 103: 803-806 .
      36 Coenzyme Q10 Attenuates β-Amyloid Pathology in the Aged Transgenic
      Mice with Alzheimer Presenilin 1 Mutation, Yang et al. J Mol Neurosci (2008) 34:165–171.
      37 Cognitive performance among the elderly in relation to the intake of
      plant foods. The Hordaland Health Study, Eha Nurk, British Journal of Nutrition (2010), 104, 1190–1201.
      38 Food Combination and Alzheimer Disease Risk, A Protective Diet, Yian
      Gu et al. Arch Neurol. 2010;67(6).
      39 Dietary Fats and the Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease, Morris et al.
      Archives of Neurology 2003; 60: 194-200.
      40 Apolipoprotein E4 Allele, Elevated Midlife Total Cholesterol Level, and
      High Midlife Systolic Blood Pressure Are Independent Risk Factors for Late-Life Alzheimer Disease, Kivipelto et al. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002, vol. 137, no3, pp. 149-155.
      41 Association of Higher Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in
      Elderly Individuals and Lower Risk of Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease, Reitz et al. Archives of Neurology. 2010;67(12):1491-1497.
      42 Independent inhibition of Alzheimer’s disease B- and G-Secretase
      cleavage by lowered cholesterol levels, Grimm et al. The Journal of Biological
      Chemistry Vol. 283, No. 17, pp. 11302–11311, April 25, 2008.
      43 Ginkgo biloba for dementia: a systematic review of double-blind
      placebo-controlled trials, Ernst E, Pittler, Clinical Drug
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      44 Ginkgo biloba, Sierpina et al. Am Fam Physician, 2003 Sept 1 68(5)
      923-926.
      45 Ginkgo biloba and Donepezil: a comparison in the treatment of
      Alzheimer’s dementia in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study,
      Mazza et al. European Journal of Neurology 2006, 13: 981–985.
      46 Centella asiatica Extract Selectively Decreases Amyloid β Levels in
      Hippocampus of Alzheimer’s Disease Animal Model, Dhanasekaran et al.
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      47 Effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica on cognition and markers
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      50 A 22-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of
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      51 Saffron in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s
      disease: a 16-week, randomized and placebo-controlled trial, Akhondzadeh,
      Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Volume 35, Issue 5, pages
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      52 Exercise Plus Behavioral Management in Patients With Alzheimer
      Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Teri et al. JAMA. 2003;290(15):2015-2022.
      53 Physical Activity, Diet, and Risk of Alzheimer Disease, Scarmeas et al.
      JAMA, August 12, 2009—Vol 302, No. 6.
      54 Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment, A Controlled
      Trial, Laura D. Baker et al. Arch Neurol. 2010;67(1):71-79.
      55 Physical exercise and mild cognitive impairment: A population-based
      study, Geda et al. Archives of Neurology, Vol 67 (NO. 1), JAN 2010, 80-86.
      56 No Effect of DHA Supplementation in Slowing Alzheimer's Progression,
      Quinn et al. JAMA. 2010;304:1903-1911, 1952-1953.
      57 Neurodegenerative Memory Disorders: A Potential Role of
      Environmental Toxins, Caban-Holt et al. Neurologic Clinics 23 (2005) 485–521.
      58 Low aluminum levels in the human brain from controls and Alzheimer
      patients, Delacourte et al. The Journal of Applied Neuroscience, Vol.2005.1-14.
      59 Brain aluminum in aging and Alzheimer disease, John R. McDermott et
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      60 Content of Brain Aluminum Is Not Elevated in Alzheimer Disease,
      Bjertness et al. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders: Fall 1996 - Volume 10 - Issue 3.
      61 Trace copper levels in the drinking water, but not zinc or aluminum
      influence CNS Alzheimer-like pathology, Sparks et al. The Journal of nutrition, health & aging 2006, vol. 10, no4, pp. 247-254.
      62 Evidence for Participation of Aluminum in Neurofibrillary Tangle
      Formation and Growth in Alzheimer’s Disease, Walton, J of Alzheimer’s Disease 22 (2010) 65–72.
      63 Link between Aluminum and the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease:
      The Integration of the Aluminum and Amyloid Cascade Hypotheses, Kawahara and Kato-Negish, International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2011; v2011.
      64 Aluminum in the Diet and Alzheimer's Disease: From Current
      Epidemiology to Possible Disease-Modifying Treatment, Frisardi et al. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Volume 20, Number 1 / 2010.